- Pre-history: Rock’s roots in blues, country, and folk
- The birth of rock ‘n’ roll: Elvis Presley, Chuck Berry, and Little Richard
- The British Invasion: The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, and The Kinks
- Psychedelic rock: The Grateful Dead, Jimi Hendrix, and Pink Floyd
- Hard rock and heavy metal: Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath, and Deep Purple
- Punk rock: The Ramones, The Sex Pistols, and The Clash
- New wave: Talking Heads, The Police, and Blondie
- Alternative rock: R.E.M., Nirvana, and Radiohead
- Indie rock: The Strokes, The White Stripes, and Arcade Fire
- The future of rock: ??
A History of Rock Music in 500 Songs is a new blog series that will explore the history of rock music through the lens of 500 of its most essential songs.
Pre-history: Rock’s roots in blues, country, and folk
Rock music is a genre of popular music that originated in the United States in the 1950s. The term “rock” encompasses a wide variety of styles, including styles that are often categorized as pop, experimental, garage, hard rock, punk, and more. The roots of rock music can be traced back to the early 20th century and the influence of blues, country, and folk music. In the 1920s and 1930s, these genres began to be blended together by artists such as Hank Williams and Jimmie Rodgers. In the 1940s and 1950s, rock ‘n’ roll emerged as a popular form of music, led by artists such as Elvis Presley, Chuck Berry, and Little Richard. In the 1960s, rock music became increasingly experimental and diverse, with subgenres such as psychedelic rock and garage rock developing. In the 1970s and 1980s, punk rock and new wave emerged as popular subgenres. In the 1990s and 2000s, alternative rock became the dominant form of rock music.
The birth of rock ‘n’ roll: Elvis Presley, Chuck Berry, and Little Richard
The birth of rock n roll is usually traced back to the mid-1950s, when a style of music called rockabilly emerged. Rockabilly was a mix of country music and rhythm and blues, and was played by artists like Elvis Presley, Chuck Berry, and Little Richard. These artists would go on to have huge careers in the field of rock n roll.
The British Invasion: The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, and The Kinks
In the early 1960s, Britain was in the midst of a “cultural revolution.” Young people were rejecting the traditional values of their parents and grandparents, and searching for new ways to express themselves. One of the most important outlets for this new self-expression was music.
In 1963, a band from Liverpool, England called The Beatles released their first single, “Please Please Me.” The song was an instant sensation, and soon The Beatles were being hailed as the “new sound of young America.” The Beatles were followed by other British bands such as The Rolling Stones and The Kinks, who also found success with American audiences.
This period, known as the “British Invasion,” had a profound effect on the development of rock music. The Beatles and their fellow invaders brought with them a new attitude towards music and fashion, which helped to fuel the “youthquake” of the 1960s. Thanks to the British Invasion, rock music would never be the same.
Psychedelic rock: The Grateful Dead, Jimi Hendrix, and Pink Floyd
Psychedelic rock, also called acid rock, or sometimes freaked out, is a style of popular music that emerged in the mid-1960s. Its origins are associated with the countercultural movement that arose in the United States and Britain in reaction to the conservative social norms of the time. Psychedelic music attempted to recreate or enhance the experience of altered states of consciousness, such as those induced by LSD and other psychoactive drugs. It often used new recording techniques and effects, distorted electric guitars,dashBoard drums, sitars, and amplified feedback to produce a “wall of sound.”
Hard rock and heavy metal: Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath, and Deep Purple
Hard rock and heavy metal developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as bands such as Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath, and Deep Purple pushed the boundaries of what was possible in rock music. These bands took inspiration from previous genres such as blues andpsychedelia, and created a new sound that was heavier, louder, and more aggressive. Hard rock and heavy metal would go on to dominate the world of rock music for the next several decades.
Punk rock: The Ramones, The Sex Pistols, and The Clash
Without a doubt, the most influential and important punk rock bands were The Ramones, The Sex Pistols, and The Clash. Emerging from New York and London in the mid-1970s, these three bands epitomized the DIY (do it yourself) ethic of punk rock, which emphasised independence, creativity, and DIY ethics. With their simple chord progressions, catchy hooks, and limited musical abilities, they inspired a new generation of musicians to start their own bands.
The Ramones were the first punk rock band to gain widespread popularity. Formed in 1974, they were inspired by the likes of The Stooges and The New York Dolls. Their criticisms of society, politics, and the music industry struck a chord with many disaffected youths. They also popularized the use of power chords and fast tempos in punk rock. Although they never had a major hit in the United States, they were hugely influential on the development of punk rock both musically and aesthetically.
The Sex Pistols were punks who followed in the footsteps of The Ramones. Formed in 1975, they quickly became UK sensations with their crudely constructed songs about anarchy and violence. Their single “God Save the Queen” was banned by the BBC and caused uproar when it was released during Queen Elizabeth II’s Silver Jubilee celebrations in 1977. The band only released one album before guitarist Steve Jones and drummer Paul Cook left to form The Professionals. However, their impact on punk rock was enormous; they showed that anyone could start a band and that punk rock could be used as a medium for political expression.
The Clash were another hugely influential punk rock band. Formed in 1976, they combined the energy of punk with elements of reggae, ska, dub, and rockabilly to create their own unique sound. They also tackled social and political issues head-on in their songs; “White Riot” was an anthem for disaffected youths during race riots in London in 1977 while “London Calling” spoke to the anxieties caused by nuclear war. The Clash were also one of the first punk bands to achieve mainstream success; both “London Calling” and “Rock the Casbah” reachedthe top 10 in the UK charts.
New wave: Talking Heads, The Police, and Blondie
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, a number of bands emerged that were influenced by punk rock but took the music in different directions. These bands came to be known as “new wave,” a term coined by journalists to describe this new style of music.
One of the most important new wave bands was Talking Heads, whose four original members met while attending college in Rhode Island. The band’s mix of punk energy, African rhythms, and experimentalism made them one of the most innovative and acclaimed groups of the era. Other important new wave bands included The Police, whose reggae-influenced sound helped them become one of the biggest bands in the world in the early 1980s, and Blondie, whose combination of pop hooks and punk attitude made them one of the most successful chart actsof the late 1970s.
Alternative rock: R.E.M., Nirvana, and Radiohead
Alternative rock is a broad umbrella term that encompasses a wide variety of different subgenres and artists. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it was used to describe thePost-Punk and New Wave revival bands that emerged from the underground music scene in the United Kingdom, such as R.E.M., The Smiths, and The Cure. In the United States, alternative rock became associated with college rock, a type of Indie Rock that developed on college radio stations.
In the early 1990s, Nirvana’s breakthrough album Nevermind brought mainstream attention to Alternative Rock, and led to the widespread popularity of the grunge subgenre. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Radiohead’s experimental style helped to usher in a new wave of post-rock bands, while also popularizing experimental rock music with a wider audience.
Indie rock: The Strokes, The White Stripes, and Arcade Fire
Indie rock is a genre of rock music that originated in the United States and United Kingdom in the 1970s. Originally used to describe independently released records, the term became associated with the music of DIY punk and post-punk bands such as the Stooges, the Velvet Underground, and Television. In the 1980s, the use of the term “indie” began to broaden to include all DIY music scenes outside of major record label control. In the 1990s, as a result of changes in the music industry and a growing popularity of alternative rock, “indie rock” came to be used to describe bands and artists that were signed to independent record labels or that were unsigned.
The Strokes are an American rock band from New York City. Formed in 2001, the group is composed of lead vocalist and guitarist Julian Casablancas, lead guitarist Nick Valensi, rhythm guitarist Albert Hammond Jr., bassist Nikolai Fraiture, and drummer Fabrizio Moretti. The White Stripes were an American rock duo formed in 1997 in Detroit, Michigan. The group consisted of Jack White (vocals, guitar) and Meg White (drums). Arcade Fire is a Canadian indie rock band formed in Montreal in 2001 by husband-and-wife Win Butler and Régine Chassagne. With help from producer Markus Dravs, they released their critically acclaimed debut album Funeral on September 14, 2004.
The future of rock: ??
In the past decade, rock music has undergone something of a renaissance. Artists like the Arctic Monkeys, Hozier and The 1975 have brought the genre back to the top of the charts and into the public consciousness. But what does the future hold for rock music?
There is no easy answer to that question.Rock music is always evolving, and it is hard to predict where it will go next. However, there are some general trends that suggest where the genre might be headed.
One trend is an increasing focus on political and social issues. In recent years, we have seen songs about gender equality (‘Boys’ by Charli XCX), mental health (‘1-800-273-8255’ by Logic) and racism (‘White Privilege II’ by Macklemore). It is likely that we will see more of this in the future, as artists use their platform to address the problems of society.
Another trend is a return to traditional songwriting values. In an age of auto-tune and production tricks, many artists are stripping back their sound and focusing on writing good songs with catchy hooks. This is perhaps best exemplified by Ed Sheeran, who has had huge success with his simple but effective pop songs.
It is impossible to say for sure where rock music will go in the future. However, these trends suggest that it will continue to be a vital and relevant genre for years to come.