The Instrument in Hindustani Classical Music Crossword
The Instrument in Hindustani Classical Music Crossword is a must-have for anyone who loves music. This crossword puzzle will test your knowledge of Hindustani classical music and the instruments used in it.
The instrument in Hindustani classical music
The sitar is a plucked stringed instrument used in Hindustani classical music. The instrument is believed to have originated in the Middle East, and it is thought to have been introduced to India by the Persians. The sitar has a long neck and a gourd-shaped body, and it is usually played with a pick. The instrument is used in both solo and ensemble performances, and it is one of the most popular instruments in Hindustani classical music.
The sitar is a plucked stringed instrument used mainly in Hindustani classical music. The instrument is believed to have been derived from the veena, another plucked stringed instrument which was popular in ancient India. The sitar evolved during the Mughal period and reached its present form in the 18th century. It is a long-necked, fretted instrument with a gourd-shaped resonator and two bridges. The sitar is usually played with a plectrum made of horn, ivory or bone.
The word sitar is thought to be derived from the Persian word sehtar, which means “three-stringed.” The sitar typically has six or seven main strings and eleven to thirteen sympathetic strings. The main strings are plucked with the right hand while the left hand manipulates the frets. The sympathetic strings are tuned to produce drone notes and are not plucked; they are allowed to vibrate sympathetically when the main strings are played.
The sitar has been used in Hindustani classical music for centuries and is one of the most popular musical instruments in India. Many famous musicians have played the sitar, including Ravi Shankar, Vilayat Khan, Pt. Nikhil Banerjee and Pt. Ravi Shankar.
The tabla is a percussion instrument native to the Indian subcontinent, consisting of a pair of drums played by striking them with the hands. The tabla is used in a wide variety of Indian classical music styles as well as in popular and folk music. It has also been adopted into other musical traditions, such as Western classical music.
The name “tabla” is derived from the Sanskrit word तबला (tāblā), which means “drum”. The word तबला is derived from ताप् (tāpa), which means “heat, fire”.
The tambura (sometimes spelled tanpura) is a long-necked plucked string instrument found in various forms in Indian music. It has a resonance chamber in the body over which four or five (sometimes more) strings are stretched. It is one of the main accompaniment instruments in Hindustani classical music, providing the drone against which melody (played on other instruments or by the human voice) is played. It has been called the “drone” instrument par excellence.
The playing style of Hindustani classical music
The playing style of Hindustani classical music is characterized by the use of improvisation, ornamentation and embellishment of the melody. The music is based on a raga, which is a scale of notes that the musician improvises on. The instrumentation of Hindustani classical music includes the sitar, tabla, shehnai and sarangi.
In Hindustani classical music, a gharana (also spelled garana or gharaanaa) is a community of musicians and performers sharing common stylistic traditions and originating from a particular geographical region. The gharana system began to develop around the 12th century, with the rise of the Delhi Sultanate, and reached its peak in the late 19th to early 20th centuries. The word “gharana” literally means “house”, “family” or ” lineage”.
The concept of gharana is believed to have evolved from the shishya-guru parampara (“student-teacher tradition”), which was central to India’s classical music traditions. In this tradition, a student would learn musical repertoire and performance techniques from a guru (teacher), who was usually also a member of the student’s family. Over time, different branches of the shishya-guru parampara would develop their own distinct styles, which became known as gharanas.
There are many different Hindustani classical music gharanas, each with its own distinct style. Some of the more well-known gharanas include the Agra Gharana, the Jaipur-Atrauli Gharana, the Gwalior Gharana and the Kirana Gharana.
The playing style of Hindustani classical music is based on the concept of “taal”, which is literally translated as “rhythm” or “beat”. The taal is the basic unit of time in Hindustani classical music, and is typically constituted by a combination of beats, known as “matras”. The length of a taal can vary from 4 matras (beats) to 128 matras, although the most common taals used in Hindustani classical music are between 16 and 32 matras in length.
In Hindustani (North Indian) classical music, a raga is a melodic scale upon which a song’s melody is based. A raga’s precise melodic contours, including their ascent (aroha) and descent (avaroha), mood, speed and ornamentation, make it identifiable. Each raga provides the musician with a musical canvas on which to improvise. Hindustani musicians regard improvisation as central to performances, and the raga as the melodic framework for composition and improvisation.
Ragas are traditionally classified under 10 “parent” categories called thaats. Thaats are further divided into raginis (female) and ragamalas (male). There are also “light” ragas, known as lakshanas, which do not belong to any thaat. The 10 thaats are Bilawal, Kalyan, Khamaj, Poorvi, Marwa, Bhopali, Bhairav, Asavari, Todi and Carnatic. Each of these has certain associated symptoms or features that form its unique identity.
The history of Hindustani classical music
The origins of Hindustani classical music can be traced back to the Vedic period. The Vedas, which are the earliest Hindu scriptures, contain hymns that are sung in praise of the gods. These hymns were probably the first examples of music in India.
The Vedic period
The Vedic period is the earliest of the four periods in Indian history. It is named after the Vedas, sacred texts which were composed in this period. The Vedic period began around 1500 BCE and lasted until about 500 BCE.
During the Vedic period, the primary form of music was sung hymns called Samaveda. These hymns were meant to be sung during religious rituals. Other musical instruments, such as the Rudra veena and Mridangam, were also played during this time.
The Vedic period saw the evolution of several musical genres, including classical music. The two main schools of thought on classical music emerged during this time: Carnatic music and Hindustani music. Carnatic music developed in South India while Hindustani music developed in North India.
Both Carnatic and Hindustani classical music share a common foundation, but they have diverged in style and repertoire over the centuries. Hindustani classical music is characterized by its use of North Indian ragas (melodic scales) and talas (rhythmic cycles), as well as its unique improvisational style.
The post-Vedic period
The post-Vedic period saw the increased popularity of the vina, which was mentioned in the Rigveda and other ancient texts. The earliest reference to the Been, an instrument with both drone and melody strings, dates back to this period. The Yajurveda mentions a seven string vina called Mahati, while the Atharvaveda describes a similar instrument calledganyaganadi.
The modern period
In the 20th century, Hindustani classical music developed a number of new schools, or gharanas. The greatest exponent of the Lucknow gharana was the singer Ustad Bismillah Khan, who popularized the shehnai, a small oboe-like instrument. Among the exponents of the Agra gharana were Ustad Hafiz Ali Khan and his son Ustad Vilayat Khan. In the Benares style, Pandit Ravi Shankar and Ustad Bismillah Khan were notable maestros. Other important gharanas that emerged in the 20th century include those of Gwalior, Jaipur-Atrauli, Kirana and Patiala.