The Different Types of Indian Classical Music
Indian classical music is a genre of South Asian music. It has two major traditions. The North Indian classical music tradition is called Hindustani, while the South Indian expression is called Carnatic.
Indian classical music is a genre of South Asian music. It has two major traditions: the North Indian classical music tradition and the South Indian classical music tradition. Indian classical music is one of the oldest musical traditions in the world. The 13th-century musician and theorist Uncategorized Vâtya wrote a treatise called Sangita Ratnakara, which is one of the earliest works on Indian classical music.
The North Indian tradition, also known as Hindustani music, developed in the medieval Kingdom of North India (present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal). It is typically performed by sitar, shehnai, tabla and sarangi players. The main vocal styles associated with Hindustani music are khayal, thumri and dhrupad.
The South Indian tradition, also known as Carnatic music, developed in the southern parts of the Indian subcontinent (present-day Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana). It is typically performed by veena, nadaswaram and mridangam players. The main vocal style associated with Carnatic music is kriti.
Both Hindustani and Carnatic music place emphasis on melody and rhythm; they are based on similar scales and use similar ragas (melodic frameworks). However, they differ in their approach to rhythm: while Carnatic musicians use fixed compositions with prescribed talas (rhythmic cycles), Hindustani musicians are more flexible, improvising their own compositions based on melodic improvisation (alap) and rhythmic improvisation (tala).
The Different Types of Indian Classical Music
Indian classical music is divided into two main traditions: the northern tradition, which is called the Hindustani tradition, and the southern tradition, which is called the Carnatic tradition. There are four main types of Indian classical music: dhrupad, khyal, tarana, and thumri.
Dhrupad is a type of North Indian classical music. It is considered to be the oldest form of classical music in India, and its origins can be traced back to the Vedic period. The word “dhrupad” comes from the Sanskrit words “dhruva” (immovable or permanent) and “pada” (foot or verse).
Dhrupad is characterized by its use of gamakas (ornamentations), complex rhythmic patterns, and chanting. It is usually performed by a group of four musicians: two vocalists, a percussionist, and a drone player. The vocalists sing melodic lines in unison, while the percussionist provides accompaniment on the tabla or mridangam. The drone player usually plays the tambura, which provides a continuous harmonic background.
Dhrupad evolved from simpler Vedic hymns into more complex compositions during the medieval period. It reached its peak of popularity during the Mughal era (1526-1707), when it was patronized by rulers such as Akbar and Jahangir. However, it subsequently declined in popularity, and by the 19th century, it was only being performed by a handful of traditional families.
In the 20th century, dhrupad experienced a revitalization thanks to the efforts of Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande and Pandit Ramashreya Jha “Ramrang”. Today, it is once again gaining popularity both in India and abroad.
Khyal is the most common form of Indian classical music. It developed in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, and reached its height of popularity in the 18th and 19th centuries. Khyal is characterized by its use of Ragas, or melodic patterns, as well as its focus on vocal performance.
Next in popularity is Dhrupad, a form of music that dates back to the 15th century. Dhrupad is distinguished by its use of open-ended composition, as well as its emphasis on rhythm and percussion.
Then there is Tarana, a form of music that developed in the 18th century. Tarana is characterized by its use of rhythmic patterns called talas, as well as its focus on vocal improvisation.
Last but not least is Thumri, a form of music that developed in the 19th century. Thumri is distinguished by its use of light melodies and lyrics that are often playful or romantic in nature.
Tappa is a form of classical music that originated in Punjab, India. It is a fast-paced, energetic style of music that is based on hard, staccato rhythms. Tappa songs are usually about love and loss, and they often tell stories of Radha and Krishna, the Hindu god of love.
Tarana is a kind of Indian classical music that is known for its fast tempo and rhythmic nature. It is usually sung in a call and response format, with the singer singing a line or phrase and the audience responding with another line or phrase. Tarana is often used as a way to pump up the energy of a performance, and it is often used as the opening or closing piece of a show.
Dadra is a light, semi-classical form of Hindustani music that usually consists of six beats (matras). The typical instrumentation for a dadra performance is sarangi (a bowed string instrument), shehnai (a conical, double-reed instrument) and tabla (a pair of small hand drums). The tempo is generally slow, and the mood is introspective.
Thumri is a lighter form of Indian classical music that developed in the medieval era. It is typically sung in a Hindustani style and is usually slower than other forms of Hindustani music. The lyrics of thumri are usually in Hindi or Urdu, and the songs often deal with themes of love and longing.
Indian classical music is a rich and diverse genre that has been evolving for over 3,000 years. While it is often categorized by region (North Indian vs. South Indian), there are actually many different types of Indian classical music, each with its own unique history, style, and form.
Whether you’re just beginning to explore this beautiful genre or you’re a seasoned listener, we hope this guide has helped you better understand the different types of Indian classical music. If you’re interested in learning more, we encourage you to check out our recommended resources below.