What is Classical Music?
- Classical Music Defined
- The Different Genres of Classical Music
- The Different Forms of Classical Music
- The Different Styles of Classical Music
- The Different Schools of Classical Music
Classical music is a genre of music that dates back centuries. It is characterized by its intricate melodies and harmonies, and often features complex instrumental arrangements.
Classical Music Defined
Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and secular music, encompassing a broad period from roughly the 9th century to present times.
The Elements of Classical Music
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music. While a more precise term is also used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820 (the Classical period), this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common-practice period.
The History of Classical Music
Classical music is broadly understood as music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical and secular music. While a more precise definition is possible, it is often difficult to achieve because classical music spans such a long period of time – from the early Gregorian chants of the medieval era to contemporary works by living composers. It also encompasses a wide range of styles, from the Austro-Germanic traditions of Johann Sebastian Bach and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to the Romanticism of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Frédéric Chopin to the minimalism of Steve Reich and Philip Glass.
One way to look at classical music is as a continuous tradition that began around the year 800 with the liturgical chants of the Catholic Church. These pieces were usually anonymous, rarely lasted longer than a few minutes, and were intended to be performed by trained vocalists within the context of religious ceremonies. Over time, these chants began to evolve and become more complex, with multiple voices singing melodic lines simultaneously. This evolution can be traced through various works from different periods, such as Gregorian chant from the Medieval era, Renaissance polyphony from composers like Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, and Baroque counterpoint from Johann Sebastian Bach.
From its earliest beginnings, then, classical music has been defined by its complex use of melody, harmony, and counterpoint. As it developed over time, other elements were added – such as expressive dynamics (loudness and softness), tempo changes (fast and slow), articulation (legato or staccato), and timbre (the unique “color” or tone of an instrument). These elements are all used by composers to create pieces that are both emotionally moving and intellectually stimulating.
Classical music has always been closely intertwined with other art forms – particularly dance. Many of Bach’s works were written for specific dances, such as his suites for solo cello; Haydn wrote several ballets; Beethoven frequently used dances as inspiration for his symphonies; Brahms based his Hungarian Dances on traditional folk tunes; Tchaikovsky’s Sleeping Beauty ballet was one of his most popular works; Wagner’sRing Cycleopera was based on ancient Norse mythology; Stravinsky’sThe Rite of Spring caused a riot when it premiered due to its innovative choreography; and George Gershwin’sRhapsody in Blue forever changed the relationship between classical music and jazz.
Throughout its long history, then, classical music has been defined by its complex melodic structures, its use of counterpoint and harmony, its relationships with other art forms like dance, and its ability to evoke emotion while also engaging the intellect. It is this rich variety that makes classical music one of the most rewarding genres to explore.
The Different Genres of Classical Music
Classical music is a genre of music that encompasses a broad range of styles and periods. It is generally considered to include music composed by Western culture musicians between 17th century to the late 19th century. Classical music is often divided into different genres, such as opera, symphony, oratorio, sonata, and concerto.
The Baroque period of classical music is from approximately 1600 to 1750. It was a time when composers were influenced by the grandeur and power of the Roman Catholic Church, as well as the changing political landscape in Europe. Many famous composers, such as Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel, wrote music during the Baroque period.
Baroque music is characterized by its ornate melodies and countermelodies, as well as its complex harmonies. Instruments during this time period were often used to create a sense of grandeur, such as the organ and harpsichord. The music from this period is often lively and energetic, making it popular even today.
Classical music is often divided into different genres, or types, depending on the era it was composed. The three main periods of classical music are the Baroque period (1600-1750), the Classical period (1750-1820), and the Romantic period (1820-1910). Each of these periods has its own unique sound, feel, and compositional style.
The Baroque period is characterized by complex melodies, rich harmonies, and an overall ornate sound. The most famous composer of this era is Johann Sebastian Bach, who wrote The Well-Tempered Clavier and many other famous works.
The Classical period is marked by a simplification of compositional style and a focus on elegance and balance. This era’s most famous composer is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, whose operas The Marriage of Figaro and Don Giovanni are still popular today.
The Romantic period is known for its emotionalexpressiveness, expanded harmonic palette, and larger orchestras. Some of the most well-known classical pieces were composed during this time, including Tchaikovsky’s Swan Lake and Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9.
The Romantic period was one of the most important and influential periods in the history of Western classical music. Running roughly from 1800 to 1850, it saw the composition of some of the most well-known and beloved works in the repertoire, including Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony, Mozart’s Clarinet Concerto, Chopin’s Piano Concerto No. 2, and Schubert’s “Unfinished” Symphony.
During the Romantic period, composers began to experiment with new musical forms and tonalities (key signatures). This led to a greater degree of expressive freedom and a wider range of emotions being conveyed in their music. Romantic composers also placed a greater emphasis on individualism, originality, and national identity than their classical predecessors had done.
Despite all these changes, Romantic music still retained many characteristics of classical music, such as symmetrical phrasing, balance, and clarity of form. The most important difference was that Romantic composers were much more willing to push the boundaries of what was considered acceptable in music. This willingness to experiment is what made the Romantic period such a rich and rewarding time for classical music lovers.
Modern Classical Music
Modern classical music is a broad term that refers to music produced in the 20th and 21st centuries. It includes a wide variety of styles, including avant-garde, Contemporary art music, and experimental music.
One of the most important things to remember about modern classical music is that it is not limited to any one genre or style. In fact, many composers who are considered to be part of the modern classical movement created works that incorpated elements of multiple genres. This makes it difficult to define modern classical music in a single sentence or phrase.
Some of the most famous composers of modern classical music include John Cage, Elliott Carter, and Igor Stravinsky. These composers pushed the boundaries of what was considered possible in music, and their works continue to influence composers today.
The Different Forms of Classical Music
Classical music is a genre of music that typically features complex, highly technical melodies and harmonies. It is usually performed by professional musicians in formal settings such as concert halls and opera houses. There are several different forms of classical music, including symphonic, chamber, and operatic music.
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestras. Although symphonies are typically orchestral works, other instrumental or vocal forces may be included to provide color and contrast. A large number of solo and ensemble works within the Western classical tradition are Symphonies.
Symphonies first developed in the early 18th century as composers began to think of instrumental music solely in terms of “Keys” or “TONalities”. The word “Symphony” derives from the Greek word συμφωνία (symphōnia), meaning “agreement or concord of sound”. Over time, different types and sizes of orchestras have developed, and different names have been given to various instrumental combinations that have been used within symphonies.
A concerto is a musical composition typically featuring a solo instrument accompanied by an orchestra. The soloist showcases their virtuosity and technical mastery, while the orchestra provides accompaniment and support. The concerto form originated in the Baroque period, when composers such as Antonio Vivaldi and Johann Sebastian Bach wrote numerous works for solo instruments such as the violin, harpsichord, and flute.
During the Classical period, the concerto form reached its height of popularity with composers such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven. In the Romantic era, composers began to experiment with larger orchestras and more expansive compositions, resulting in works such as Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky’s Piano Concerto No. 1 and Johannes Brahms’ Violin Concerto.
The concerto form continues to be popular to this day, with new works being composed for a wide variety of instruments and ensembles.
An opera is a musical work in which a story is told through song. The word “opera” actually means “work” in Italian, and the first operas were indeed works of art that combined many different types of artistic expression. In an opera, the music, lyrics, and physical acting all come together to tell a story.
Opera was invented in the late 1500s by a group of Italian poets and musicians. The very first operas were short pieces that were performed as part of a wedding or another type of celebration. As opera developed, it began to be performed in special theaters designed specifically for the purpose.
The most famous type of opera is probably grand opera, which is characterized by lavish productions with large casts and orchestras, spectacular sets and costumes, and dramatic stories.*
The Different Styles of Classical Music
There are many different types of classical music, from the medieval period to the present day. Each style has its own unique characteristics, and there is a lot of variety within each style. Let’s take a look at some of the different styles of classical music.
The Gregorian Chant
The Gregorian Chant is the earliest known style of classical music. This style was created by monks in the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages. The music is named after Pope Gregory I, who ruled from 590 to 604 AD. The monks who developed this style of music were looking for a way to make the Christian message more accessible to people who did not speak Latin, which was the language of the Catholic Church at that time.
The Gregorian Chant is based on a simple melody that is sung in a monotone. This type of music was sung without accompaniment (no instruments were used). The chants were usually symmetrical, which meant that they had a repeating pattern. This type of music was designed to be easy to learn so that it could be performed by large groups of people.
One of the most famous pieces of Gregorian Chant is “Alleluia: Vidimus stellam” (“We have seen his star”), which is a celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ.
The madrigal is a vocal genre ofRenaiassance music characterized by intricate polyphony, elaborate expression, and gutsy delivery. The madrigal was born in the north of Italy during the 1460s. The first madrigals were written in a light, homophonic style; however, over time they became more and more complex, eventually incorporating strands of contrapuntal counterpoint. By the early 1600s, the madrigal had spread throughout Europe and was being performed by professional singers and amateurs alike. Around this time, composers began to experiment with new genres such as opera and the oratorio, which eventually eclipsed the popularity of the madrigal. Nevertheless, the madrigal continued to be written and performed well into the 18th century.
While there is no one single defining characteristic of the madrigal genre, there are certain elements that are commonly found in most pieces. Madrigals are usually written for four to six voices, with each voice having its own separate part to sing. The parts are often quite independent from one another, meaning that each voice can be singing its own melody or words at any given time. This type of texture is known as polyphony. Madrigals are also typically quite expressive pieces of music, with changes in dynamics (loudness and softness), tempo (speed), and articulation (how the notes are sung or played) being used to convey different emotions or images.
A fugue is a contrapuntal composition, or a piece of music written in counterpoint. In a fugue, there are two or more voices (or parts), each playing the same melody, but starting at different times. This gives the music a “weaving” quality, with the different voices interlocking together.
Fugues can be found in many different types of classical music, including Bach’s The Well-Tempered Clavier and Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9 (the “Choral” Symphony).
The word “fugue” comes from the Latin word for “flight,” which may refer to the way that the different voices “flee” from each other in this type of music.
The Different Schools of Classical Music
Classical music can be traced back to the 13th century. It is a genre of art music that emerged from theMusic of the Medieval era. The term ‘classical music’ is used to refer to a period of Western music that lasted from the late 18th century to the early 19th century. The Classical era is characterized by a period of balance, symmetry, and stability.
The Viennese School
The Viennese School is a classical music tradition that dates back to the 18th century. It is based in Vienna, Austria, and it was developed by a group of composers including Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, and Ludwig van Beethoven. The Viennese School helped to define the Classical Era of music history, and it continues to be influential today.
The Viennese School is distinguished by its focus on melody and balance. The composers of this tradition believed that music should be accessible to as many people as possible, and they wrote pieces that were designed to be performed by amateurs as well as professionals. The Viennese School also helped to develop new genres of classical music, such as the symphony and the concerto.
The Viennese School period lasted until around 1830, when Romanticism began to take hold in classical music. However, the influence of the Viennese School can still be heard in the work of later composers such as Johannes Brahms and Gustav Mahler.
The Italian School
The Italian School was a period of classical music that began in the late 16th century. The first notable composer of the Italian School was Claudio Monteverdi. Other important composers from this period include Giovanni Gabrieli, Alessandro Scarlatti, and Antonio Vivaldi.
The Italian School is characterized by its use of melody and counterpoint. The music of this period is often bright and lively, with a strong focus on beautiful melodies.
The German School
The German School of classical music is one of the most important and influential in Western music. It began in the late 18th century with the works of Johann Sebastian Bach and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and reached its peak in the early 19th century with Ludwig van Beethoven. The German School was characterized by competition between rival composers, each striving to be more innovative than the last. This led to a period of great creativity and experimentation, resulting in some of the most important works in the history of classical music.